Common Types of Cancers

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the one of the most common malignancies afflicting women. In some parts, it is the most common malignancy as far as cancer occurrence is concerned.

Great majority of breast cancers are adenocarcinomas, which means cancers developing from glandular tissues. When it develops from canal cells, it is called as canalary cancer and when it develops from lobules, it is called as lobular cancer.

There are two kinds of breast cancer:

  • Invasive Cancer: This is a more frequent kind of cancer in which cancerous cells cross canal walls and invade close tissues. These cancers can reach the lymph nodes (particularly those situated close to armpits) or other tissues in the body. Organs with the bigger risk to develop metastasis of breast cancer are bones, lung, liver and brain.
  • "In Situ" or Intra-Canalary Cancer: Cancerous cells stay inside the canals.

Treatments and Procedures

In recent years, there has been an overwhelming explosion of life-saving breast cancer treatment options. So, once breast cancer is detected, one should go for the following treatment options:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Surgery followed by Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Combined Therapy
  • Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer, including hyperthermia cancer treatment
  • Hormonal Therapy - Aromatase Inhibitors
  • Targeted Therapies
  • Complimentary and Holistic Medicines
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors Therapy

Technology Used

Apart from surgery and chemotherapy, the new age technology used to treat breast cancer include Radiology and Radiation Oncology, which are advanced imaging technology that can be used to detect breast cancer.

Technologies for detection of cancer:

  • Computerized Tomography (CT)
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • MRI Breast Imaging
  • Ultrasound
  • PET Fusion

New cutting-edge equipments include the CyberKnife® robotic radiosurgery, which are at the cutting edge of this technology – both offering pain-free non-invasive treatment with far greater accuracy and speed. Other leading edge treatment technologies available include:

  • Robotic Surgical System
  • Trilogy Image Guided Radiation Therapy System (IGRT)
  • Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy System (IMRT)

Achievements

Experts

The oncology clinic is comprised of physicians dedicated to treating breast cancer and metastases to the system with the latest technology. Because our physicians are specialists in gynecologic oncology, hematology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology and breast cancer treatment, you can rest assured you’re receiving the best care available. We work with specialists in other areas of care when necessary to give you a comprehensive approach to treatment of breast cancer. OMEGA offers the latest and most advanced breast cancer treatments in India. In fact, it is one of the best oncology services in India.

Apart from doctors, we have radiologists who specialize in Breast Imaging, Neuroradiology, PET CT, Abdominal Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Musculoskeletal Imaging. We are uniquely positioned to make the tremendous power of these technologies work towards giving you the best cancer treatment.

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer was one of the most common causes of death among cancer patients. However, today, more and more women are screened for cervical cancer using the Pap tests. An estimated 11,070 cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed in 2008.

Cervical Cancer Risk Factors

Cervical cancer can occur in:

  • Women more than 50 years old
  • Women who have had sex at an early age, had multiple partners or had multiple pregnancies
  • Women who have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, such as herpes, genital warts, or Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
  • Women who smoke
  • Women with poor sexual hygiene

Cervical Cancer Symptoms

In the early stages, there usually are no symptoms. Later, these symptoms may begin to appear. Some of the common symptoms are

  • Menstrual bleeding that heavier and lasts longer than usual
  • Bleeding after menopause
  • Increased vaginal discharge
  • Pelvic pain
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Pain during urination
  • Bleeding between regular menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, douching, or pelvic exam

Cervical Cancer Early Detection

Ways to detect cervical cancer early are:

  • Have annual Pap tests beginning no later than three years after starting to have vaginal intercourse, but not later than age 21. Especially, women who have had a total hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus and cervix to treat cervical cancer or pre-cancer) should have annual Pap tests done

Cervical Cancer Prevention

Some of the possible ways to prevent cervical cancer are:

  • Getting regular screening tests
  • Limiting the number of sexual partners
  • Abstaining from sex with people who have had multiple partners
  • Using barrier contraception
  • Avoiding oral contraceptives

Cervical Cancer Treatment

Possible treatments for cervical cancer are:

  • Surgery - Surgical removal of the lymph nodes (Lymphadenectomy) or removal of cervix and/or uterus
  • Cryosurgery - Using extreme cold to treat pre-cancerous conditions
  • Radiation - This type of treatment can be done internally with radioactive materials that are implanted in the uterus or externally with the use of a radiation therapy machines
  • Chemotherapy - Prescribed to treat cervical cancer and also to help radiation therapy be more effective

Lung Cancer

Lungs are exposed to a lot of toxic substances we inhale, such as pollution or tobacco, that's why lung cancer is so frequent.

There are two kinds of lung cancers: small cell and non-small cell lung cancer (the most frequent). These two forms do not growth identically and have different treatments.

The small cell lung cancer is the more serious because it cannot be detected early, and most of the time, by the time it is discovered, cancer has spread to other organs. There are three major types of small cell lung cancer:

  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Mixed small cell/large cell
  • Combined small cell carcinoma

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. It usually spreads more slowly than some other lung cancers. There are three major types of non-small cell lung cancer:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Large cell carcinoma

When cancer strikes the lining of the lungs - otherwise known as the pleura - the disease that results is referred to as pleural mesothelioma. Technically speaking, the pleura is a sac which contains the lungs as well as a thin membrane known as the mesothelium, which secretes a vital fluid that enables the lungs to expand and contract during the breathing process.

Treatments for Lung Cancer and Procedures

Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy (used alone or in various combinations) are the standard methods used to treat lung cancer. The choice of treatment depends on many factors, including the type of tumor, the extent of the disease when it is diagnosed, the age and general health of the patient and other variables.

For small cell cancers, only chemotherapy can be efficient. Sometimes, thoracic radiotherapy is also associated. As the risk of brain metastasis is very high (blood goes directly from lungs to brain), a prophylactic skull radiation exposure is done.

Surgical procedures that may be employed include wedge or segmental resection (removal of a portion of the affected lungs), lobectomy (removal of the entire lobe of the lung) or pneumonectomy (removal of the entire right or left lung).

For non-small cell cancers, if the tumor can be removed surgically, the surgeon will remove one lobe or the entire affected lung (depending on the size and location of the tumor) and the closest lymph nodes, which can contain cancerous cells. If the patient is too weak to have an operation, radiotherapy associated to chemotherapy can be done instead. When the tumor has spread too much and is not removable, or if there are metastases, patient is treated by radiotherapy along with chemotherapy.

For cancer of the pleural mesothelioma, treatment options are limited. Only a handful of mesothelioma patients afflicted with this form of the disease are candidates for surgery to remove tumors, especially since the tumors are often large and widespread by the time of diagnosis.

If only outer pleuron is affected, chemotherapy can be efficient. The possibility of surgery has to be discussed for every patient specifically. Most of the time, both pleura and lung are removed, and radiotherapy is associated. Surgery may be an option later, if the oncologist thinks the removal of a lung would benefit the patient.

More often, pleural mesothelioma patients are treated with radiation or chemotherapy.

Tchnologey Used for Treatment of Lung Cancer

Apart from surgery and chemotherapy, the new age technology used to treat lung cancer include Radiology and Radiation Oncology, which are advanced imaging technology that can be used to detect lung cancer.

Technologies for detection of cancer:

  • Computerized Tomography (CT)
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • PET Fusion

New cutting-edge equipments include the CyberKnife® robotic radiosurgery, which are at the cutting edge of this technology – both offering pain-free non-invasive treatment with far greater accuracy and speed. Other leading edge treatment technologies available include:

  • Robotic Surgical System
  • Trilogy Image Guided Radiation Therapy System (IGRT)
  • Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy System (IMRT)

Achievements

Experts

The oncology clinic is comprised of physicians dedicated to treating lung cancer and metastases to the system with the latest technology. Because our physicians are specialists in oncology, hematology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology and lung cancer treatment, you can rest assured you're receiving the best care available. We work with specialists in other areas of care when necessary to give you a comprehensive approach to treatment of Lung cancer. OMEGA offers the latest and most advanced lung cancer treatments in India.

Apart from doctors, we have radiologists who specialize in Imaging, Neuroradiology, PET CT, Abdominal Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Musculoskeletal Imaging We are uniquely positioned to make the tremendous power of these technologies work towards giving you the best cancer treatment.

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, probably making up more than half of all diagnosed cases of cancer. There are primarily 3 kinds of skin cancer:

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: It is 1 of the 3 skin cancer forms that may be observed within locations on the body which are subjected to sunlight. This may include the ears, face as well as oral cavity. One indicator associated with this kind of skin cancer is a lump which tends to change into an open wound. This open sore is actually a kind of ulceration which is red with a flat spot which is occasionally crusty and grows larger without healing. If this is left unattended, that bump/sore could spread quickly to various other areas of the body such as nerve paths, blood-stream and lymphatic systems.
  • Basal Cell Skin Cancer: It is the 2nd type of skin cancer and accounts for 75% of all skin cancer cases each year and is the most prevalent kind of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma generally develops upon the face, neck as well as hands. It's a very curable kind of skin cancer which hardly ever advances to other areas of the body.
  • Melanoma: It is the 3rd type of the skin cancer. It is the most deadly form of skin cancer. Melanoma may manifest on any part of the body that has been exposed to damaging UV rays.

Treatments and Procedures

There are many ways for skin cancer treatment with a good chance of success of 90% or more. The doctor's main goal is to remove or destroy the cancer completely with as small a scar as possible. Methods used to treat basal cell carcinomas include:

  • Curettage and Desiccation: Dermatologists often prefer this method, which consists of scooping out the basal cell carcinoma by using a spoon like instrument called a curette. Desiccation is the additional application of an electric current to control bleeding and kill the remaining cancer cells. The skin heals without stitching.
  • Surgical Excision: The tumor is cut out and stitched up.
  • Radiation Therapy: Doctors often use radiation treatments for skin cancer occurring in areas that are difficult to treat with surgery. Obtaining a good cosmetic result generally involves many treatment sessions, perhaps 25 to 30.
  • Cryosurgery: Some doctors trained in this technique achieve good results by freezing basal cell carcinomas. Typically, liquid nitrogen is applied to the growth to freeze and kill the abnormal cells.
  • Mohs Micrographic Surgery: This technique of removing skin cancer is better termed "microscopically controlled excision." The surgeon meticulously removes a small piece of the tumor and examines it under the microscope during surgery. This sequence of cutting and microscopic examination is repeated in a painstaking fashion so that the basal cell carcinoma can be mapped and taken out without having to estimate or guess the width and depth of the lesion. This method removes as little of the healthy normal tissue as possible. Cure rate is very high, exceeding 98%. Mohs micrographic surgery is preferred for large basal cell carcinomas.
  • Medical Therapy: This method uses medicated creams that attack cancer cells (5-Fluorouracil--5-FU, Efudex, Fluoroplex) or stimulate the immune system (imiquimod [Aldara]). These are applied several times a week for several weeks. They produce brisk inflammation and irritation.

Almost every skin cancer is treated by surgery. The tumor, which is situated on the skin, is removed under local or general anesthesia depending on its location. Cancerous tissues are removed with a safety margin, in order to be sure that all cancerous cells will be eliminated. Apart from these regular treatments, certain alternative methods are also available, which include homeopathic cancer treatments and natural caner treatments. These are gaining popularity at a fast pace.

Technology Used

Similar to all cancers, treatment for skin cancer uses latest technologies. Advanced technology has made it possible both to detect skin cancer earlier and devise the best treatment options. Multiple imaging tools, including intravenous pyelogram (IVP), ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provide very detailed images of the skin, uncovering masses and allowing physicians to precisely tailor treatment options and recommendations.

Achievements

Experts

The oncology clinic is comprised of physicians dedicated to treating skin cancer and metastases to the system with the latest technology. Because our physicians are specialists in oncology, hematology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology and skin cancer treatment, you can rest assured you're receiving the best care available. We work with specialists in other areas of care when necessary to give you a comprehensive approach to treatment of skin cancer. OMEGA offers the latest and most advanced cancer treatments in India.

Oral Cancer

What is cancer?

Oral Cancer affects nearly 30,000 people a year and more than 7,000 die from it annually. Oral cancer is usually diagnosed late, so it is important to maintain good oral health and visit your dentist regularly.

Oral Cancer Risk Factors

Oral cancer can occur mostly in men and women who:

  • Chew and/or smoke tobacco or use alcohol.
  • Are of age 40 and older, especially African-American men.
  • Exposed to sunlight for long periods of time.
  • Intake diet is low in fruits and vegetables.

Oral Cancer Symptoms

The following symptoms are early warning signs for oral cancer:

  • A white or red lesion on gums, lips, tongue or mouth lining
  • A lump or mass, which can be felt inside the mouth or neck
  • Pain or difficulty chewing, swallowing or speaking
  • Hoarseness lasting for a long time
  • Numbness of the tongue or other areas of the mouth
  • Swelling of the jaw, loosening of the teeth or pain in the mouth that doesn't go away
  • Bleeding in the mouth

Oral Cancer Early Detection

To help being treatment immediately, it is essential to detect oral cancer early because it is easily curable. The following steps have to be taken care of:

  • Have regular dental checkups that include an examination of the entire mouth
  • Ask your health care professional to examine your mouth and throat as part of your routine cancer checkup
  • Conduct a monthly self-examination by looking in a mirror to check for symptoms

Oral Cancer Prevention

To prevent oral cancer:

  • Avoid tobacco, excessive alcohol use and the combination of tobacco and alcohol
  • Avoid being outdoors during mid-day, when the sun's ultraviolet rays are strongest
  • Use lip balms containing a sunscreen of SPF 15 or more to protect against sunlight
  • Eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grain foods and less high fat and processed meats
  • Have an annual oral cancer screening done by your dentist or health care professional

Oral Cancer Treatment

Treatment options available are:

  • Surgery and Radiation Therapy- These are standard forms of treatment
  • Chemotherapy - Used in addition to surgery and/or radiation for some patients with later stages of the disease

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in males between the ages of 15 and 35. However, it accounts for only 1 percent of all cancers in men.

Cancer that develops within one or both testicles is called testicular cancer. It is one of the most curable forms of cancer. Other names for cancer of the testicles are cancer of the testes, testes cancer, or testis cancer. The exact cause of testicular cancer is not known. One of the major risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism, a condition in which one or both of the testicles have not descended into the scrotum. Normally, testicular descent occurs before birth. Other risk factors include Kleinfelter's syndrome (an inherited disorder), a family history of testicular cancer, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and exposure before birth to the hormone diethylstilbestrol (DES), which in the past was sometimes prescribed to pregnant women.

 

Treatments and Procedures

Most men with testicular cancer can be cured with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. Testicular cancer treatment also depends on the stage of the cancer, the patient's age and general health, and other factors. The three types of standard treatment are described below:

  • Surgery: To remove the testicle through an incision in the groin is called a radical inguinal orchiectomy. Men may be concerned that losing a testicle will affect their ability to have sexual intercourse or make them sterile (unable to produce children). However, a man with one healthy testicle can still have a normal erection and produce sperm.
  • Radiation Therapy (also called radiotherapy): It uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It is a local therapy, meaning that it affects cancer cells only in the treated areas.
  • Chemotherapy: It use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. When chemotherapy is given to testicular cancer patients, it is usually given as adjuvant therapy (after surgery) to destroy cancerous cells that may remain in the body. Chemotherapy may also be the initial treatment if the cancer is advanced; that is, if it has spread outside the testicle at the time of the diagnosis. Most anticancer drugs are given by injection into a vein.

Technology Used

Apart from surgery and chemotherapy, the new age technology used for testicular cancer treatment include Radiology and Radiation Oncology, which are advanced imaging technology that can be used to detect cancer.

Technologies for detection of cancer:

  • Computerized Tomography (CT)
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • PET Fusion

New cutting-edge equipments include the CyberKnife® robotic radiosurgery, which are at the cutting edge of this technology – both offering pain-free non-invasive treatment with far greater accuracy and speed. Other leading edge treatment technologies available include:

  • Robotic Surgical System
  • Trilogy Image Guided Radiation Therapy System (IGRT)
  • Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy System (IMRT)

Achievements

Experts

The oncology clinic is comprised of physicians dedicated to treating testicle cancer and metastases to the system with the latest technology. Because our physicians are specialists in oncology, hematology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology and testicle cancer treatment, you can rest assured you’re receiving the best care available. We work with specialists in other areas of care when necessary to give you a comprehensive approach to treatment of testicle cancer. OMEGA offers the latest and most advanced cancer treatments in India. In fact, it is one of the best oncology services in India.

Apart from doctors, we have radiologists who specialize in Imaging, Neuroradiology, PET CT, Abdominal Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Musculoskeletal Imaging. We are uniquely positioned to make the tremendous power of these technologies work towards giving you the best cancer treatment. We have a fine combination of radiotherapy and oncology to give you complete cancer treatment.

Head & Neck Cancer

Head and neck cancer refers to a group of biologically similar cancers originating from the upper aerodigestive tract, including the lip, oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, and larynx. Thus, mouth cancer, throat cancer, and tongue cancer come under the broad term "head and neck cancer". 90% of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, originating from the mucosal lining (epithelium) of these regions. Head and neck cancers often spread to the lymph nodes of the neck, and this is often the first (and sometimes only) manifestation of the disease at the time of diagnosis.

Head and neck cancer is strongly associated with certain environmental and lifestyle risk factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, UV light and occupational exposures, and certain strains of viruses, such as the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus. These cancers are frequently aggressive in their biologic behavior; patients with these types of cancer often develop a second primary tumor.

Head and neck cancer is highly curable if detected early, usually with some form of surgery although chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also play an important role.

Treatments and Procedures

Head and neck cancer treatment includes standard routine cancer treatments. These include:

  • Surgery: Doing a surgery or not depends on the location and the size of the tumor. In mouth and pharynx cancers, surgery is done first. Functions of the tumor size, more or less tissues are removed. The neck lymph nodes are entirely removed. In larynx cancers, surgery is done only if the radiotherapy has been inefficient. In this case, the operation is a laryngectomy, partial or total functions of the tumor size. In mouth cancers, repair surgery can decrease the after effects of the tissues removal, thanks to muscles and bones transplants.
  • Radiotherapy: It is often a complement to the surgery, but sometimes it can be the only treatment, particularly in larynx cancers when the tumor size has correctly decreased after the chemotherapy. In mouth cancers, it's sometimes possible to use curietherapy.
  • Chemotherapy: It is done to reduce the most possible the size of the tumor, in order to limit the number of surgeries. Sometimes only the radiotherapy will be necessary after the chemo.

Technology Used

Apart from surgery and chemotherapy, the new age technology used to treat head and neck cancer include Radiology and Radiation Oncology, which are advanced imaging technology that can be used to detect cancer.

Technologies for detection of cancer:

  • Computerized Tomography (CT)
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • PET Fusion

New cutting-edge equipments include the CyberKnife® robotic radiosurgery, which are at the cutting edge of this technology – both offering pain-free non-invasive treatment with far greater accuracy and speed. Other leading edge treatment technologies available include:

  • Robotic Surgical System
  • Trilogy Image Guided Radiation Therapy System (IGRT)
  • Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy System (IMRT)

Achievements

Experts

The oncology clinic is comprised of physicians dedicated to treating upper aerodigestive tract cancer and metastases to the system with the latest technology. Because our physicians are specialists in head and neck oncology, hematology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology and head and neck cancer treatment, you can rest assured you're receiving the best care available. We work with specialists in other areas of care when necessary to give you a comprehensive approach to treatment of pancreatic cancer. OMEGA offers the latest and most advanced cancer treatments in India.

Apart from doctors, we have radiologists who specialize in Imaging, Neuroradiology, PET CT, Abdominal Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Musculoskeletal Imaging We are uniquely positioned to make the tremendous power of these technologies work towards giving you the best cancer treatment.

Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer or gastric cancer usually begins in cells in the inner layer of the stomach, invading other parts over the time. Stomach tumors can metastases through the stomach's outer layer into nearby organs, such as the liver, pancreas, esophagus, or intestine.

Stomach cancer cells can spread by breaking away from the original tumor. They enter blood vessels or lymph vessels, which branch into all the tissues of the body. The cancer cells may be found in lymph nodes near the stomach. The cancer cells may attach to other tissues and grow to form new tumors that may damage those tissues. The spread of cancer is called metastasis.

In 90% of cases, stomach cancer is an adenocarcinoma, which means a tumor that develops from glandular epithelium cells (cells that cover glands).

 

Stomach Cancer Treatment in India

Stomach Cancer Treatment depends on the results of tests and your overall health. People with advanced heart and lung disease may not tolerate aggressive therapy. In many cases, the stomach cancer may have advanced too far for any available treatment to work. You will require surgery to be cured. Your stomach is removed entirely, and your esophagus is attached to your small intestine. Surgery may relieve symptoms of obstruction. The upper end of your stomach is connected to your small bowel, bypassing the area of obstruction. Companion treatment with either chemotherapy or radiation may improve your survival following surgery.

After your stomach has been removed, your doctor will monitor your disease with repeat CT Scan, of your abdomen and gastrointestinal endoscopy to make sure the cancer does not return.

Technology used for Treating Stomach Cancer

Technology used to diagnose as well as treatment of stomach cancer are:

  • Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy: It is superior because it allows a direct view of the area of concern. The doctor can also take a sample of tissue (biopsy) to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Barium studies are also effective in detecting stomach cancers, although they may be less effective in detecting small tumors. Suspicious areas seen on barium study always require further endoscopic checking. Barium studies may have a major role in screening because they cause less discomfort compared with gastroscopy.

Once doctors establish the diagnosis, further tests are performed, including the following:

  • A CT scan of the abdomen
  • Chest x-ray film
  • Nuclear bone scans: These may be helpful in ruling out advanced disease that has spread outside your stomach walls.

Achievements

Experts

The oncology clinic is comprised of physicians dedicated to treating stomach cancer and metastases to the system with the latest technology. Because our physicians are specialists in oncology, hematology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, Radiation Oncology and stomach cancer treatment, you can rest assured you're receiving the best care available. We work with specialists in other areas of care when necessary to give you a comprehensive approach to treatment of stomach cancer. OMEGA offers the latest and most advanced gastric cancer treatments in India.

Blood Cancer

The term blood cancer or leukemia actually describes a group of cancers involving an excess of white blood cells. In blood cancer, the bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells. The abnormal cells are leukemia cells. Unlike normal blood cells, leukemia cells don't die when they should. They may crowd out normal white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This makes it hard for normal blood cells to do their work.

In chronic leukemia, blood stem cells are affected at a late stage of differentiation, which means that the cells that abnormally multiply are almost mature. They occur most of the time in adult.

Based on the function of the kind of cells affected, there are two types of chronic leukemia:

     

  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: It affects lymphocytes and leads to an abnormally high number of lymphocytes in the blood. It occurs most of the time in old patients and evolves slowly.
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: It affects neutrophils. It's the only leukemia for which hereditary cause has been proved. Indeed, this cancer is due to the formation into the cells of a "hybrid" chromosome formed by the union of two chromosomes. This new abnormal chromosome, called Philadelphia chromosome, lead to the synthesis of an abnormal protein called bcr-abl, which is responsible for the cancerous evolution of blood stem cells. With this leukemia, there is a risk of progression into the acute form.

In acute leukemia, blood stem cells are affected at an early stage of differentiation, and these immature cells that abnormally proliferate are called blast cells. They can go into the blood stream.

As for chronic leukemia, we can encounter:

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: It affects the immature lymphocytes and occurs most of the time in children.
  • Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia: It affects all other immature cells in the bone marrow (red blood cells, platelets and neutrophils).

Treatments and Procedures

Treatment for leukemia is complex. The treatment depends not only on the type of leukemia, but also on certain features of the leukemia cells, the extent of the disease, and whether the leukemia has been treated before. It also depends on the patient's age, symptoms and general health. Three methods for blood cancer treatment are:

  • Bone Marrow Transplantation: It is a way of allowing doctors to use very large doses of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to kill the cancerous cells. It is currently preferred in some centers to use peripheral blood stem cells from the donor. A second option is the Graft-versus-Leukemia effect, where the cells from the new marrow recognize the leukemia cells as cancerous and kill them.
  • Radiotherapy (also called radiation therapy): Energy rays like X-rays to stop cancer cells from growing and multiplying. This may be directed to a specific part of the body like the spleen, or to the whole body, usually as preparation for a bone marrow transplant.
  • Biological Therapy: Also called immunotherapy, it involves treatment with substances that affect the immune system's ability to destroy cancer cells. The two available types of biological therapy are Interferon, which stimulates the immune system to kill cancer cells, and monoclonal antibodies, which stick to cancer cells to draw the immune system's attention to them. These are usually used in the chronic rather than the acute leukemia.

Technology Used

Apart from surgery and chemotherapy, the new age technology used to treat blood cancer include Radiology and Radiation Oncology, which are advanced imaging technology that can be used to detect blood cancer.

Technologies for detection of cancer:

  • Computerized Tomography (CT)
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • PET Fusion

New cutting-edge equipments include the CyberKnife® robotic radiosurgery, which are at the cutting edge of this technology – both offering pain-free non-invasive treatment with far greater accuracy and speed. Other leading edge treatment technologies available include:

  • Robotic Surgical System
  • Trilogy Image Guided Radiation Therapy System (IGRT)
  • Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy System (IMRT)

Achievements

Experts

The oncology clinic is comprised of physicians dedicated to treating blood cancer and metastases to the system with the latest technology. Because our physicians are specialists in oncology, hematology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology and blood cancer treatment, you can rest assured you’re receiving the best care available. We work with specialists in other areas of care when necessary to give you a comprehensive approach to treatment of blood cancer. OMEGA offers the latest and most advanced blood cancer treatments in India. In fact, it is one of the best oncology services in India.

Lymphoma Cancer

Lymphoma is the name for a group of blood cancers that start in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the body's immune system - the body's defense against infection. Lymphoma is a general name for a group of cancers that affect the lymphatic system. The two major types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

 

About 74,340 Americans were diagnosed with lymphoma in 2008, including 8,220 cases of Hodgkin's Lymphoma and 66,120 cases of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Lymphoma Risk Factors

The following risk factors are associated with lymphoma:

  • Age: majority of the people diagnosed are usually are over the age of 60 Weak Immune System: Other illnesses or diseases, such as HIV/AIDS weakens the immune system and can make the body more susceptible to lymphoma
  • Infections: Illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS, Epstein-Barr virus, Hepatitis C, and Helicobacter pylori are all factors that can increase the risk of developing lymphoma
  • Exposure to Chemicals: Long-term exposure to some chemicals like benzene, herbicides (weed killers), pesticides (insect killers) Previous Treatment for Other Cancers: Individuals who have received chemotherapy or radiation therapy for previous cancers

HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA

Hodgkins Lymphoma Symptoms

The most common sign of Hodgkin lymphoma is one or more enlarged lymph nodes. The enlarged lymph node is painless and may be in the neck, upper chest, armpit, abdomen or groin.

Some of the symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma may also include:

  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Tiredness
  • Weight loss
  • Itchy skin

Hodgkins Lymphoma Treatment

Hodgkin lymphoma can be cured in about 86 percent of all patients. The cure rate in younger patients is about 90 percent.

Treatment includes chemotherapy or chemotherapy and involved field radiation therapy, which targets the Hodgkin lymphoma masses. Other parts of the body are protected to prevent harm. Chemotherapy is used with radiation to kill nearby lymphoma cells.

Four or more drugs may be used together. Drugs may be injected, given through a catheter or taken by mouth.

NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA (NHL)

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Symptoms

The most common sign of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma is one or more enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin. Enlarged lymph nodes also can be near the ears or elbow.

Some signs and symptoms of NHL are:

  • Painless swelling of lymph nodes in neck, underarm, and groin
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Recurring infections
  • Loss of appetite

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Treatment

Some of the available treatments are:

  • Chemotherapy - Is given in "cycles," usually several weeks apart. Patients need a number of cycles. The treatment may last from 6 to 10 months - it is outpatient treatment for most patients. Some patients may have to be in the hospital for a short time - if the patient develops a fever or other signs of infection. Some patients who need antibiotics may stay in the hospital until the infection is gone.
  • Drug Treatments - May include up to five drugs. For example, R-CHOP - Rituxan ®, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, Oncovin ® (vincristine), prednisone - is a common drug combination for some types of NHL.
  • Radiation Therapy - can be used along with chemotherapy when there are very large masses of lymphoma cells in a small area of the body.
  • Stem Cell Transplant - (sometimes called a bone marrow transplant) is used for some patients with NHL.

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant or cancerous cells are found in the ovaries. An ovary is one of two small, almond-shaped organs located on each side of the uterus. The ovaries store eggs or germ cells and produce female hormones: estrogen and progesterone. An estimated 21,650 new cases were diagnosed in 2008.

 

Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors

Ovarian cancer occurs mostly in among women who are between late pre-menopausal and post menopausal age. Other risk factors include:

  • Women who start menstruating an early age ( before 12), have had no children, or have had their first child after the age of 30, and/or experienced menopause after an age of 50
  • Women who have used fertility drugs and hormones replacement therapy
  • Women whose first degree relatives of either maternal or paternal sides are at risk of cancer
  • Women who have had breast cancer have increased risk of ovarian cancer. Also, women with hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer are associated with endometrial and ovarian cancer
  • Women who use of talcum powder applied directly to the genital areas
  • Women who are overweight carry high risk of death in ovarian cancer

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms

Following are the symptoms of ovarian cancer:

  • Unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Pelvic pressure
  • Back or leg pain
  • Unexpected weight loss or gain
  • Constipation
  • Sense of fullness or pressure in the pelvis
  • Abdominal bloating or swelling
  • Indigestion or gas
  • Frequency or urgency of urination

Ovarian Cancer Prevention

Women can reduce the risk of developing ovarian cancer by:

  • Using oral contraceptives, which decrease the risk of developing ovarian cancer, especially among women who use them for several years
  • Having tubal ligation or hysterectomy done. Tubal ligation or hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to "tie" the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy. This surgery, apparently, reduces chances of developing ovarian cancer
  • Having one or more children with prolonged breast-feeding, as this may decrease a woman's risk for ovarian cancer
  • Observing a diet high in vegetables, and limiting intake of high fat foods has lead to a reduced rate of ovarian cancer among women, according to a number of studies
  • Exercising regularly

Ovarian Cancer Early Detection

Early detection improves chances of treatment. Methods of early detection include:

  • Regular Pap-Smear. Every 2 to 3 years for women older than 30 years
  • Screening test through Trans-vaginal Sono-graphy or ultrasound test or CT Scan
  • Regular CBC (Complete blood count) or General blood chemistry test
  • Treating symptoms like abdominal swelling, unusual vaginal bleeding, pelvic pressure, back pain, leg pain and digestive problems such as gas bloating, indigestion or long term stomach pain. Most of these symptoms can also be caused by other less serious conditions

Ovarian Cancer Treatment

The following treatment options are available:

  • Surgery - Surgery usually involves removal of one or both ovaries, fallopian tubes (salpingoophorectomy), and the uterus (hysterectomy)
  • Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy administered both intravenously and directly into the abdomen improves survival
  • Radiation Therapy - Uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors